By Robert Havard
Why is the Spanish enter to Surrealism so precise and robust? What do such well known figures as Dalí, Buñuel, Lorca, Aleixandre and Alberti have in universal? This booklet untangles the difficulty of Surrealism in Spain via targeting a constant characteristic in Spanish avant-garde poetry, artwork and picture of the overdue twenties and thirties: its supersaturation in faith. A repressive non secular upbringing, in general less than the Jesuits, intensifies either the paranoiac and the paranormal - Surrealism's dual pillars - that have been already deeply ingrained within the Spanish psyche. extraordinary examples are Lorca's prophetic voice in manhattan, Dalí and Buñuel's Eucharistic ameliorations, Alberti's Loyolan materio-mysticism. Alberti is the fulcrum of this research because his poetry is going the complete distance of Surrealism's evolution from Freudian catharsis to metaphysical transcendence until eventually it expires in a Marxist response to church-bound culture while his country convulses in civil battle, the surrealist ethos in Spain isn't reducible to measuring how heavily it imitates French idea. it truly is 'more severe' than the French, says Alberti, and its bearings are chanced on on a move of psychological soreness and in a trip out of hell that made genuine paintings in perform. ROBERT HAVARD is Professor of Spanish, college of Wales, Aberystwyth.
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Additional info for The Crucified Mind: Rafael Alberti and the Surrealist Ethos in Spain (Monografías A)
Hasta el presente no existe una explicación satisfactoria de este fenómeno, habiendo quien opina que se trata de una impresión puramente subjetiva. l. a. teoría más admitida atribuye este fenómeno a l. a. dispersión atmosférica. ’ Enciclopedia common ilustrada europeo-americana, XLIX (Espasa-Calpe, Madrid, 1958). fifty seven See AP five, ninety nine. His different favorite sleek poet is, unusually, Jiménez. fifty eight See, for example, Machado’s poem starting ‘Hay dos modos de conciencia’ [There are different types of knowing’] in A. Machado, I, Poesías completas, edición crítica de Oreste Macrì (Espasa-Calpe/Fundación Antonio Machado, Madrid, 1989), 577; or Robert Havard, Antonio Machado: Campos de Castilla (Duckworth/Bristol Classical Press, London, 1997), seventy five, with a dialogue of this poem and of rules in relation to Krause, Giner and Bergson within the advent. less than THE JESUITS sixty seven [Flowers … / bled dry in a tedium of primers and slate pencils. four and four are 18. And the X, a okay, an H, a J … / Boy. misplaced between performances, triangles, formulation and cast-down blues. ] Perversely, whereas Alberti identifies arithmetic because the bane of his adolescence, his poems express a excessive occurrence of numbers, specifically in Sobre los ángeles and Sermones y moradas. fifty nine the reason for this is often rooted within the Jesuit brain which expresses itself through an emphatic predilection for numbers that is going some distance past arithmetic and permeates its whole mode of articulation, this being the operative time period as Roland Barthes has proven: Whoever reads the workouts sees firstly look that the cloth is subjected to an incessant, painstaking, and virtually obsessive separation; or extra precisely, the workouts is that this separation itself, to which not anything is pre-existent: every thing is straight away divided, subdivided, labeled, numbered off in annotations, weeks, issues, workouts mysteries, and so forth. an easy operation which delusion attributes to the author of the area, setting apart day, evening, guy, girl, parts, and species, kinds the continued foundation of Ignatian discourse: articulation. 60 in brief, Loyola’s linguistic mode, with its power subdividing into articles and the numbering off this includes, drastically raises the tendency to take advantage of numbers that's already marked in biblical narrative and within the codifying of spiritual dogma, viz. ten commandments, seven lethal sins, 4 final issues, 4 horsemen of the apocalypse, 5 clever and 5 silly virgins, to say yet a number of. What Barthes phrases ‘an exasperated type of binarism’ within the tree-like bifurcations or ‘continuous arborescence of Ignatian discourse’ leads to a proliferation of numbers within the religious workouts and, we could imagine, in Jesuit instructing praxis. sixty one fifty nine the significance of numbers is sort of obvious in titles: ‘El ángel de los números’ [‘The Angel of Numbers’], ‘Los dos ángeles’ [‘The Angels’], ‘5’, ‘Tres recuerdos del cielo’ [‘Three memories of Heaven’], ‘Dos niños’ [‘Two Boys’], and particularly ‘Sermón de las cuatro verdades’ [‘Sermon at the 4 Truths’].